While this article cannot discuss such events at length, it would be inappropriate not to mention the impact of the Renaissance and of the Protestant reform initiated by Luther and Calvin. These events triggered the birth of two factors from which arose the modern world, those being the secularisation of public life and the emancipation of the individual from spiritual authority. The 16th century was a new cultural world, where the clergy had lost the monopoly of study and knowledge. This was now shared with a new social class of enriched bourgeois and of nobles who were freed from their military obligations and eager to contribute to the development of Western thought.
The most important century for legal certainty is, however, the 17th century, for this was when the three other logics came to fruition, even if their roots can be traced back to antiquity.
Jeremie Van Meerbeeck
(The Principle of legal certainty in the case law of the European Court of Justice: From certainty to trust, European Law Review, aprilie 2016, la p. 277)