The author of the legal provision serving as the basis of a legitimate expectation is typically the national legislative authority. However, international authorities or competent bodies enacting legislation which is binding on a State also qualify as authors. For example, if the State before the ECtHR is also a member of the European Union, a Community norm may provide the basis for a legitimate expectation. In a series of cases against France the ECtHR concluded that a Community norm, i.e., a provision of an EU Directive, which was perfectly clear, precise and directly applicable provided, together with other factors, the basis for a legitimate expectation.
(Legitimate expectation under Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights, ed. Intersentia, 2014, la p. 133)