Omul este în mod fatal predispus să greșească dintr-un număr variat de motive (Idola Tribus, Idola Specus, Idola Fori și Idola Theatri)

7 februarie 2018
241 citiri

[Există un al doilea punct de pornire în speculațiile lui Bacon care nu este, din punct de vedere istoric, atât de legat de tipul particular de cultură la care a aparținut Bacon și împotriva căruia a reacționat. Ca mitul Peșterii lui Platon sau al Porumbelului rațiunii arătat de Kant, tipologia lui Bacon de eroare umană poate fi înțeleasă și apreciată (și, de fapt, de obicei este) în afara filozofiei specifice a lui Bacon. Deci, teoria sa despre idolii sau forme canonice de eroare inscripționate asupra minții umane este unul dintre cele mai strălucite precedente ale încercărilor ulterioare de a construi sistematic un catalog sau o clasificare antropologică a ideologiilor. Omenirea, potrivit lui Bacon, este grav predispusă la erori din mai multe motive. Ca specie, are propriile limitări care fac eroarea inevitabilă; astfel de constrângeri intelectuale și senzoriale sunt numite Idola Tribus sau Idolii Tribului și nu există nici un indiciu de vreo notă optimistă cu privire la posibilitatea de a fi depășite sau vindecate. Mai mult decât atât, fiecare om, atunci când încearcă să știe ceva, aduce în mod invariabil cu el propriul set de preferințe și antipatii, adică propriul său machiaj psihologic, care va colora tot ceea ce el încearcă să cunoască în puritatea sa. Aceste prejudecăți sunt așa-numitele Idola Specus sau Idolii din peșteră (Bacon face aluzie la imaginea lui Platon în Republica), la care suntem supuși toți în calitatea noastră de indivizi. În plus, omul este victima fără speranță a capcanelor și a iluziei limbii, adică a propriului său instrument de cunoaștere și comunicare, și, prin urmare, va cădea pradă lui Idola Fori sau Idolilor de pe Piață, aspect care rezultă inevitabil din faptul că este un animal vorbitor. În fine, însuși actul de a intra în relații cu ceilalți implică o mare panoplie de iluzii și imposturi, unde adevărul cedează în fața sofisticărilor convenției sociale: acestea sunt Idola Theatri sau Idolii Teatrului. Potrivit lui Bacon, nu există nici o gândire ce se realizează în vid: omul este împins de ceea ce au crezut ceilalți înaintea lui și, prin urmare, el este moștenitorul numit pentru toate sectele și filozofiile trecutului. Idolii Teatrului se află mereu în jurul filozofului potențial. Mintea omului, în rezumat, nu este în nici un caz o tabula abrasa, pentru a folosi empiricistul șibolet consacrat, ci mai degrabă o „oglindă fermecată” sau o „oglindă distorsionată”. Adevăratul interpret al naturii, adică filosoful adevărat, trebuie să fie mereu în gardă, de asemenea, împotriva intruziunilor unor astfel de Trugbilder sau miraje în domeniul său de interes cognitiv. Bacon, cu toate acestea, niciodată în mod expres nu afirmă că omul poate fi complet lipsit de astfel de predispoziții înșelătoare.]

There is a second starting-point in Bacon’s speculations which is not, historically speaking, so tied to the particular kind of culture to which Bacon belonged and against which he reacted. Like Plato’s Myth of the Cave or Kant’s Dove of Reason, Bacon’s typology of human error can be understood and appreciated (and in fact it usually is) outside the specific province of Bacon’s philosophy. So his theory of the Idols or canonical forms of error imprinted on the human mind is one of the most brilliant precedents of later attempts at systematically building up a catalogue or anthropological classification of ideologies. Mankind, according to Bacon, is fatally prone to err for a variety of reasons. As a species, it has its own limitations which make error inescapable; such intellectual and sensory constraints are called Idola Tribus or Idols of the Tribe, and there is no hint of an optimistic note as to whether they can be overcome or cured. Moreover, each man, when trying to know anything, invariably brings with him his own set of preferences and dislikes, that is, his own psychological make-up, which will colour whatever he attempts to cognize in its purity. These prejudices are the so-called Idola Specus or Idols of the Cave (Bacon is alluding to Plato’s image in Republic), to which all of us, as individuals, are subject. Further yet, man is the hopeless victim of the traps and delusions of language, that is, of his own great tool of knowledge and communication, and hence he will fall prey to the Idola Fori or Idols of the Marketplace, which unavoidably result from his being a speaking animal. And lastly, the very act of entering into intercourse with others conjures up a great panoply of illusion and imposture, where truth succumbs to the sophistries of social convention: these are the Idola Theatri or Idols of the Theatre. According to Bacon, there is no thinking in vacuum: man is beset by what others thought before him, and therefore he is the appointed heir to all past sects and philosophies. The Idols of the Theatre are for ever hovering over the prospective philosopher. The mind of man, in sum, is by no means a tabula abrasa, to use the consecrated empiricist shibboleth, but rather an ‘enchanted glass’ or ‘distorted mirror’. The true interpreter of Nature, that is, the true philosopher, must be always on his guard agains the intrusion of such Trugbilder or mirages into his field of cognitive interests. Bacon, however, never expressly states that man can become entirely free from such deceiving propensities.

Antonio Perez-Ramos
(Francis Bacon and man’s two-faced kingdom in The Renaissance and 17th Century (coord. G. H. R. Parkinson), Routledge History of Philosophy, vol. 4, 2003 (1993), la pp. 143-144)

Unul dintre cele mai celebre articole din Codul de procedură penală franceză (și delațiunea)

7 februarie 2018

Cet article, l’un des plus célèbres du CPP, traite de l’information du procureur de la République par voie de plainte, dénonciation et avis divers. Immédiatement, l’on devine l’indispensabilité de ce texte, mais aussi l’on perçoit une reaction de rejet: dans notre inconscient collectif, la dénonciation n’est pas loin de la délation, et le professeur D. Lochak voyait dans la dénonciation „le stade suprême de la perversion de la démocratie”.

Jean Pradel
(L’Article 40 du Code de procédure pénale în La dénonciation: droit ou devoir?, Colloque du 9 juin 2011, la p. 53)

Obligația judecătorului de a realiza o trimitere preliminară, încălcarea dreptului fundamental de acces la judecătorul CJUE și condițiile din penitenciarele din România

6 februarie 2018

Where doubts concerning the interpretation and application of European Union law arise in proceedings before the regular courts for the review of extradition requests received by way of mutual legal assistance as determined by European Union law, the right to one’s lawful judge requires that the relevant questions be referred to the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) for a preliminary ruling. Failure to comply with the duty of referral incumbent upon regular courts under European Union law does not always violate the guarantee of Art. 101(1) second sentence of the Basic Law (Grundgesetz – GG). The right to one’s lawful judge is violated, however, if an issue is not yet fully resolved in the case-law of the Court of Justice and a regular court exceeds, in an untenable manner, the margin of assessment which it is necessarily afforded when interpreting and applying European Union law. To date, the ECJ has not definitively determined which specific minimum standards derive from Art. 4 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (CFR) in relation to conditions of detention, nor has it clarified the standards of review applicable to detention conditions under European Union law. A regular court certainly exceeds its margin of assessment if it draws on case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) as required under Art. 52(3) CFR, but does so only selectively while adding other considerations and thereby develops European Union law on its own authority. For these reasons, the Second Senate of the Federal Constitutional Court has granted, in an order published today, the relief sought in constitutional complaint proceedings directed against the orders of the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court (Hanseatisches Oberlandesgericht) authorising the complainant’s extradition to Romania and remanded the case to the court.

Notă MMB: cauza a fost retrimisă pe rolul instanței de drept comun pentru ca aceasta să realizeze (obligată de Curtea Constituțională Federală a Germaniei) o trimitere preliminară spre Curtea de Justiție pentru ca aceasta din urmă să se pronunțe cu privire la interpretarea unei dispoziții anume din Carta Drepturilor Fundamentale a Uniunii Europene. Speța privește un cetățean român (pentru detalii, a se vedea aici)

Curtea Constituțională Federală a Germaniei
(Comunicat de presă în limba engleză din data de 11 ianuarie 2018 cu privire la Ordinul din 19 decembrie 2017, Order of 19 December 2017 – 2 BvR 424/17)

În cauza de față, în care un parchet german o acuză pe doamna Ince (…) instanța de trimitere (…) se confruntă cu dificultatea de a stabili cu precizie ce dispoziții naționale trebuie să înlăture

5 februarie 2018

1. Încă de la importanta Hotărâre Simmenthal(2), este binecunoscut în dreptul Uniunii că „orice instanță națională, sesizată în cadrul competenței sale, are obligația de a aplica integral dreptul [Uniunii] și de a proteja drepturile pe care acesta le conferă particularilor, prin neaplicarea oricărei dispoziții eventual contrare a legislației naționale, indiferent dacă aceasta este anterioară sau ulterioară normei [de drept al Uniunii]”. O astfel de obligație decurge din principiul supremației dreptului Uniunii asupra dreptului național.

2. În cauza de față, în care un parchet german o acuză pe doamna Ince de săvârșirea infracțiunii, prevăzută de codul penal german, de organizare neautorizată a unui joc de noroc, întrucât a instalat și a pus la dispoziția publicului, fără autorizație, un aparat de jocuri, instanța de trimitere, în efortul său de a asigura conformitatea cu dreptul Uniunii, se confruntă cu dificultatea de a stabili cu precizie ce dispoziții naționale trebuie să înlăture pentru a respecta dreptul Uniunii, în special Hotărârile Curții Winner Wetten(3), Stoß și alții(4) și Carmen Media Group(5). Instanța de trimitere trebuie să verifice care dintre numeroasele mijloace de care dispune este cel ce asigură conformitatea cu dreptul Uniunii. Așadar, prezenta cauză permite Curții să readucă în discuție o serie de aspecte legate de dispozițiile tratatului privind libera prestare a serviciilor și de principiul supremației dreptului Uniunii.

MACIEJ SZPUNAR
(Concluziile prezentate în data de 22 octombrie 2015, Ince, C-336/14, EU:C:2015:724)

Virtuțile și viciile unui popor sunt întotdeauna o consecință a legislației acelui popor

5 februarie 2018

[Dar chiar și fără transformare morală, există calități ale oamenilor care deși condamnate de moralitatea convențională (creștină), atunci când sunt utilizate în mod corespunzător, pot fi social constructive. În locul încercării de a suprima pasiunile umane, precum ambiția și dorința de îmbogățire, a spus d’Holbach, societatea (ca în monarhia ideală a lui Montesquieu) ar trebui să profite la maximum de ele și să le transforme în avantajul lor; și în Suplement au Voyage de Bougainville, Diderot a arătat că dorința sexuală, departe de a fi anti-socială, a adus o contribuție neprețuită societății având în vedere că, după cum s-a crezut în general la acea vreme, prosperitatea depindea de mărimea populației. În orice caz, oamenii se vor comporta virtuos dacă vor vedea că este în interesul lor să se comporte astfel. Deci societatea, folosind morcovul mai degrabă decât nuiaua, ar trebui să facă în așa fel încât să merite ca oamenii să se comporte în mod virtuos. Trucul, după cum a subliniat Diderot într-unul din dialogurile sale, este de a construi societatea în așa fel încât „binele indivizilor să fie atât de strâns legat de binele public, încât să fie aproape imposibil ca un cetățean să facă rău societății fără a nu sfârși prin a se răni pe el însuși“. D’Holbach a subliniat de asemenea că, în societatea bine guvernată, fiecare cetățean ar fi convins că „bunăstarea părților poate rezulta numai din bunăstarea corpului în ansamblul său”. Și Helvétius a făcut de asemenea aceeași observație. O temă recurentă în De l’esprit a fost că „virtuțile și viciile unui popor sunt întotdeauna o consecință a legislației sale”: Helvétius a citat multe exemple pentru a demonstra că incidența extraordinară a virtuții civice în istoria Romei antice și a Spartei a fost rezultatul „aptitudinii cu care legiuitorii acestor națiuni au legat interesul individual de interesul public”. Într-adevăr, tocmai absența unei astfel de legături în statul modern (cu alte cuvinte, Franța) a cauzat înstrăinarea omului modern descris viu de către Holbach, un om care nu avea sentimentul de implicare în societatea în care locuia , și care, în cuvintele lui Diderot și Rousseau, nu era „nici om, nici cetățean”.]

But even without moral transformation, there are qualities in men condemned by conventional (Christian) morality, which properly used, can be socially constructive. Instead of trying to suppress human passions such as ambition and the desire for wealth, said d’Holbach, society (as in Montesquieu’s ideal monarchy) should make the most of them and turn them to its advantage; and in the Suplément au Voyage de Bougainville, Diderot showed that the sexual drive, far from being anti-social, made an invaluable contribution to society if, as was then generally believed, prosperity was dependent on population size. In any case, people will behave virtuously if they can see that it is in their own interests. So society, by using the carrot rather than the stick, should make it worth people’s while to behave virtuously. The trick, as Diderot pointed out in one of his dialogues, is to construct society in such a way that ‘the good of individuals is so closely linked to the general good, that it is almost impossible for a citizen to harm society without harming himself’. D’Holbach too stressed that in the well-governed society, each citizen would be convinced that the ‘well-being of the parts could result only from the well-being of the body as a whole’. And Helvétius also has made much the same point. A recurrent theme in De l’esprit had been that ‘the virtues and vices of a people are always a necessary effect of its legislation‘: Helvétius quoted many examples to demonstrate that the extraordinary incidence of civic virtue in the history of Ancient Rome and Sparta were the result of ‘the skill with which the legislators of these nations had linked individual interest to the public interest’. Indeed, it was precisely the absence of such a link in the modern state (in other words France) which caused the alienation of modern man vividly described by d’Holbach, a man who had no feeling of involvement in the society in which he lived, and who, in the words of both Diderot and Rousseau, was ‘neither man nor citizen’.

Peter Jimack
(The French Enlightenment II: deism, morality and politics în British Philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment, Routledge History of Philosophy, vol. 5, 2003 (1996) la pp. 265-6)

Francii elvețieni, contractele de împrumut, riscul valutar, RIL, intervenția legislativă și dreptul CEDO

4 februarie 2018

(…)
4. In 2006 both applicants took out mortgages from Hungarian commercial/mortgage banks. Their loan agreements were denominated in Swiss francs. According to the terms of the agreements, the applicants were to bear the risk of any exchange rate fluctuations between the Hungarian forint and the Swiss francs.
(…)
26. The Court has already had occasion to rule on allegations of intervention by the State, through the legislature, in order to influence the outcome of a court case. This was the situation that obtained, among others, in Stran Greek Refineries and Stratis Andreadis v. Greece (9 December 1994, Series A no. 301-B) and in Zielinski and Pradal and Gonzalez and Others v. France ([GC] nos. 24846/94 and 34165/96 to 34173/96, ECHR 1999-VII). On this subject, the Court reaffirms that, while in principle the legislature is not precluded from adopting new retrospective provisions to regulate rights arising under existing laws, the principle of the rule of law and the notion of fair trial enshrined in Article 6 preclude any interference by the legislature with the administration of justice designed to influence the judicial determination of a dispute, save on compelling grounds of the general interest (see Stran Greek Refineries and Stratis Andreadis, cited above, § 49, and Zielinski and Pradal and Gonzalez and Others, cited above, § 57). Any reasons adduced to justify such measures should be treated with the greatest possible degree of circumspection. Financial considerations cannot by themselves warrant the legislature substituting itself for the courts in order to settle disputes (see Azienda Agricola Silverfunghi S.a.s. and Others v. Italy, nos. 48357/07 and 3 others, § 76, 24 June 2014 and the authorities cited therein).
27. In Stran Greek Refineries and Stratis Andreadis, two essential features led the Court to conclude that there had been an infringement of the right to a fair hearing: firstly, the Greek legislature’s intervention in the case had taken place at a time when judicial proceedings in which the State was a party were pending; secondly, the fact that, after the parties had received the opinion of the judge-rapporteur recommending the dismissal of the State’s appeal, the Court of Cassation had decided to adjourn the hearing on the ground that a draft law concerning the case was before Parliament (ibid., § 47). In Zielinski and Pradal and Gonzalez and Others, where also a violation of Article 6 § 1 of the Convention was found, the Court emphasised that the passing of legislation with retrospective effect had had the effect of endorsing the State’s position in the proceedings that had been brought against it and which were still pending in the ordinary courts (ibid., § 58; see also, more recently and in the same vein, Azienda Agricola Silverfunghi S.a.s. and Others, cited above, §§ 77-88, where the legislative intervention had the effect of definitely modifying the outcome of a pending litigation, endorsing the State position to the applicant companies’ detriment, and where the Court emphasised that even assuming that the new law was interpretative in nature and had reinforced the original intention of the legislator, that fact, in itself could not justify an intervention with retroactive effect).
28. However, there are significant differences between the present applications and those cases. A common feature of the cases previously examined by the Court lies in the fact that the State, which had been a party to the underlying court proceedings, was intervening through legislation in order to influence the outcome of pending judicial proceedings, to prevent proceedings being opened, or to render void final and enforceable decisions which recognised personal rights to receive payment. In the instant case, however, the State was not a party to the proceedings concerned. Moreover, as indicated in the explanatory memorandum attached to Act 1 (see paragraph 17 above), the sole purpose of the impugned legislation was to ensure that the principles laid down in the Kúria’s Civil Law Uniformity Decision no. 2/2014 (see paragraph 7 above) were enforced directly, in respect of not only pending litigations but also non-litigated claims. The Court notes that the Uniformity Decision gave guidance on resolving the issues of foreign-currency-based consumer loan agreements. Therefore, it can be said that in the circumstances of the present cases the applicants could have foreseen a reaction by Parliament (see, mutatis mutandis, National & Provincial Building Society, Leeds Permanent Building Society and Yorkshire Building Society v. the United Kingdom, 23 October 1997, § 112, Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1997-VII, and OGIS‑Institut Stanislas, OGEC Saint-Pie X and Blanche de Castille and Others v. France, nos. 42219/98 and 54563/00, § 72, 27 May 2004; see also, a contrario, Azienda Agricola Silverfunghi S.a.s. and Others, cited above, § 84). In any event, there is no reason for the Court to assume that such guidance would not have had to be followed by the domestic courts in any case, even without the enactment of the new legislation.
29. Consequently, the first applicant’s action would, in all likelihood, have had the same outcome, if only after much more time-consuming court proceedings. The rationale of the impugned legislation was to ensure that all claims relating to the same subject matter could be resolved in a prompt and comprehensive manner, avoiding any inconsistency in case-law and also the overburdening of the judicial system (compare Gorraiz Lizarraga and Others v. Spain, no. 62543/00, §§ 62-75, ECHR 2004-III).
(…)

Curtea Europeană a Drepturilor Omului
(Decizia din data de 19 decembrie 2017, Bárdi și Vidovics împotriva Ungariei, CE:ECHR:2017:1219DEC002751415)

În multe privințe, internetul a reușit să ne transforme în locuitori ai unui mic sat

4 februarie 2018

In many ways the Internet has succeeded in remaking us as inhabitants of a small village. No one is a stranger either in the village or on the Internet; in both settings the savvy citizen knows how to process information. The Internet may be offensive to some, as the title of this book warns, but it benefits far more than it offends the well-informed.
(…)
In the days when one’s reach could extend no farther than one’s own village, gossip and experience protected, or at least covered, the terrain. Social norms and some legal rules worked to create an atmosphere, or market of sorts, in which one could operate reasonably well. In a more cosmopolitan world, the Internet helps re-create the world of the village, where one learned to trust here and avoid there. If one needed shoes to be repaired, there was good information about the village shoemakers; if one needs a camere today, there is excellent information on the Internet. In both places, self-promotion and misleading information can be overcome. The key tool in the village was personal experience, or what we might call repeat-play, whole on the Internet it is the fact of numerous, communicative players.
In the absence of personal experience, it is especially difficult to become well-informed about people. In the village and on the Internet one can ask about a shoemaker or a camera, and in both cases a great deal of information will be forthcoming from people who have experiences those services or that item. But information about the shoemaker’s character is somewhat more difficult to obtain because reputations are often deservedly – or undeservedly – made or broken by one or two important events. If one frauds another or heroically rescues someone from a fire, life in the village will be far worse or much better, as this episode comes to be known. If honor is claimed where it is underserved, or honesty is misreported as fraud by a competitor, our hero must hope that the truth will win out because or repeat or multiple play. If one does evil, one must try to recover by doing good, and eventually reputations cam be redeemed. But the tendency of some humans to harass others, and even to inflict emotional harm, casts some doubt on the reliability of reputations. If one tries to escape the past by moving to another village, it is likely that the newcomer will be mistrusted. In the village, every longtime resident knows whom to ask about a third party, but in the cosmopolitan world it is rare to find but one degree of separation between an employer and na applicant, or a landlord and prospective tenant.
‘Googling ‘ a target is therefore the best one can do, though that is more like asking a randomly chosen person for reference. In contrast, a village elder or other known source likely has a personal knowledge of the target and also some reputation of his or her own.
(…)

Saul Levmore, Martha C. Nussbaum
(Introduction în The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy and Reputation (coord. S. Levmore, M. Nussbaum), Harvard University Press, 2010, la pp.1-2)

Guvernul (României) susține că nicio măsură individuală de redresare nu mai este posibilă sau necesară în acest caz

1 februarie 2018

In November 2016, the competent prosecutor’s office communicated that the criminal liability for the crime in relation to the Conventional infringement (abusive behaviour, regulated by Article 250 of the former Romanian Criminal Code and by Article 296 of the Romanian Criminal Code presently in force) became time-barred on 12 June 2015.

As such, the investigated facts occurred on 12 June 2012 and the date corresponding to the end of the limitation period (dies ad quem) mentioned previously was established by the competent prosecution body holding a limitation period of three years.

In order to summarise, the Government assert that no individual measures are any longer possible or required in the present case.
Nota MMB: este vorba de continuarea la condamnarea suferită de România în cauza Gheorghiță și Alexe împotriva României, CE:ECHR:2016:0531JUD003216313

Secretariatul Comitetului de Miniștri
(DH-DD(2017)303 din data de 15 martie 2017)

Kelsen a spus despre această carte ca fiind singura dintre cele scrise de el care nu a primit nicio critică negativă

1 februarie 2018

How does Kelsen interpret The Monarchia? Kelsen’s 150-page text has two goals. On the one hand, he intends to represent Dante’s political philosophy as a result of his view of life and provide a study of its place in medieval political philosophy. On the other hand, Kelsen’s curiosity extends well beyond The Monarchia. Not only does he examine the text itself, but he also discusses Dante’s political philosophy in broader terms. To this end, he returns to previous works, including the Divine Comedy and the Banquet. Kelsen refers to other important works on political theory before Dante, situates Dante in the discourse and discusses Dante’s sources and the influence of other thinkers, including John of Paris, Jordanus of Osnabrück and Engelbert of Admont. Kelsen is well read in medieval political theory and judges confidently. The 23 year old delved into the late Middle Ages. It is clear that he benefited from Richard Scholz’s recent publication on French treatises in the 13th century.

His knowledge of the literature seems to be more than just reiteration. Kelsen’s arrangement of the material and his intellectual acuity indicate an independent investigation assessing multiple sources and providing independent judgments.
Together with the introductory chapter, which is devoted to a description of the political conditions of the 13th century, about two-fifths of the book deal with genuinely historical issues and sources. Kelsen has never written more about history than in these approximately 60 pages. The remaining 90 pages analyse Dante’s political thought. In seven chapters, Kelsen investigates:
(i) the bases of Dante’s political philosophy;
(ii) the justification and the origin of the state;
(iii) the purpose of the state;
(iv) the form of government;
(v) the relationship between princes and people;
(vi) the relationship of state and church; and, finally, (vii) Dante’s ideal of a state, namely the universal empire.

In my opinion, the investigation is consistently reliable, well based and accurate in focus and judgment. The book was well received at the time, and Kelsen retrospectively reported, in his autobiography, that it was the only one of his books for which he received no negative criticism.

Oliver Lepsius
(Hans Kelsen on Dante Alighieri’s Political Philosophy, The European Journal of International Law Vol. 27 no. 4, la p. 1160)

La început, Kelsen nu a vrut să se facă avocat (jurist)

31 ianuarie 2018

Originally, Kelsen did not want to become a lawyer. Under the influence of Viennese modernism and with a mature judgment for the intellectual developments that later brought him in contact with the Wiener Kreis, he intended to study philosophy, mathematic and physics. Deficient employment prospects made him reconsider. As he knew lawyers from among his parents’ friends and envisaged to become a judge at some point in time, he eventually enrolled in the Faculty of Law. Yet, in his first semesters, being compelled to attend rather tedious lectures on legal history, Kelsen was not attracted to law. In his reminiscences, he rather discloses an articulate interest for ancient culture, for contemporary social issues and, of course, for philosophical questions.
It was Kelsen’s curiosity that made him write the study ‘Die Staatslehre des Dante Alighieri’, which was published in the Viennese series on the theory of the state in 1905.
(…)
At that time, Dante’s political philosophy was rarely dealt with outside Italy, and work on it in Italy itself was limited because The Monarchia had been seized by the Papal Index in 1881. Kelsen rediscovered Dante for the field of political philosophy.

Oliver Lepsius
(Hans Kelsen on Dante Alighieri’s Political Philosophy, The European Journal of International Law Vol. 27 no. 4, la pp. 1153-4)